By: Renaissance US team
The Zone of Proximal Development, or ZPD, was a concept introduced by Lev Vygotsky in the late 1920s. Vygotsky, a Russian psychologist, used ZPD to describe the relationship between a student’s learning and his or her cognitive development. While he devoted the last several years of his life to the concept, his work went largely unnoticed because it was banned in the Soviet Union until the mid-1960s when students were allowed access to it via the Moscow library. By the 1980s, it was made widely available and gained traction after being translated and rephrased.
Vygotsky defined ZPD as the distance between two points of development: actual developmental level as determined by independent problem solving and the level of potential development as determined through problem solving under adult guidance or in collaboration with more capable peers. Later, Vygotsky put it succinctly, “With assistance, every child can do more than he can by himself (1986).”
For a deeper dive into ZPD and what it entails, check out this blog post.
Yes. In Renaissance Accelerated Reader®, the ZPD suggests the readability-level range from which a student should be selecting books for optimal growth in reading without frustration. It is important to note that the AR ZPD, just like Vygotsky’s actual ZPD, is approximate. Success at any level also depends on the student’s interest and prior knowledge of a book’s content. Teachers should use their professional judgment to adjust the level of books read to match an individual student’s needs and interests.
Curious to learn more? See this help article on ZPD.
Reading within the optimal range as identified by ZPD is a key component of successful reading practice and goal-setting. Paired with consistent and meaningful reading practice, ZPD can help teachers guide their students toward growth, ultimately preparing them for college and career success. While helpful, the ZPD is approximate and should be approached on a case-by-case basis. As always, it is important that teachers make the final decision for each student.